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Glyconutrient Jam and Glyconutrient Powder Recipe: An Inexpensive Way of Getting "Essential" sugars


Last modified 21 Sept 2005

Disclaimer: These notes are not to be construed as personal medical advice. Consult your qualified health professional. No information on this web site is to be seen as a treatment for any specific illness. I do not endorse the use of this recipe as a substitute for proven therapy or for a doctor's care or for the treatment of any specific illness. This information is simply presenting a recipe that I have personally used, am aiming to use, or am considering using. I am interested in it personally as a source of normal food nutrients for the maintenance of optimal health. This material is simply shared for what its worth in the hope of saving others time and or money as they do research. This material is not copyrighted, but this disclaimer should be added if it is copied. It should not be sold or otherwise used to make a profit.

I am not in a position to answer questions about this page due to time constraints. Suggestions on improving this page are welcome however. Email I have received a number of testimonials concerning improvements in well-being as a result of this recipe but due to time constraint I have decided not to publish any.

This site has been prepared by Dr David Bird MBChB, Dip Obst., Dip Clinical Nutrition, FACNEM.

Please note that I not think that a "magic bullet" approach to health is a good idea. Any health food recipe should be seen as helping to promote optimum health IN THE CONTEXT of a healthy overall lifestyle. A "healthy overall lifestyle" would, in my opinion, include (but is not limited to):

 Avoiding high fat, high sugar "junk food" diets.

 Enjoying sufficient exercise.

 Enjoying drinking plenty of pure water.

 Getting adequate sunshine and fresh air.

 Avoiding environmental poisons and other "personal" poisons such as nicotine and alcohol.

 Getting priorities in a healthy order so as to avoid undue stress.

 Trusting in God.

 Getting adequate sleep and rest.

For more suggestions please see TIPS ON HEALTH AND HAPPINESS

The eight "essential"1 sugars are: mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, fucose (not to be confused with fructose), and N-acetylneuraminic acid. They are very important for health. I will

not spend time dwelling on all the benefits as others have already done this in amble detail. In addition to the essential sugars, most of the ingredients in this recipe provide other health promoting properties as well. The aim here is to provide a simple and inexpensive way of getting glyconutrients. So let us now look at these eight sugars and see where we can get them from .

1. Mannose. Mannose may be the single most important of the eight sugars for us to get plenty of. One of the main sources is aloe vera, which contains acemannan. Acemannan is a mannose polysaccharide (i.e. a chain of mannose molecules). From what I’ve studied, most commercial supplements of aloe only have very small amounts of acemannan in them so the best way is to grow the aloe vera oneself. It is a very handy herb to have in the garden or green house (e.g. good for minor burns and some skin ailments) and it is easy to cultivate. Consult a gardening book, but apparently it needs a sunny spot that’s not too moist. I may want to enjoy using plenty of it, so ideally would like to invest in about ten plants. While I are waiting to buy and establish my own aloe plants I can use the glyconutrient powder which does have mannose in as well. This is from the kelp, the shiitake and the ground fenugreek. I have actually recently decided to just take the glyconutrient powder (as detailed below) because I find it easier. There are also concerns about diarrhoea, etc. from the skin of the leaves. Fenugreek contains plenty of galactomamman, a polysaccharide of mannose and galactose (other sources of galactomamman are carob gum and guar gum). Ground fenugreek should be readily available from a good health food store or supermarket, or I can buy the seeds and grind them myself. I prefer organic fenugreek. Shiitake mushrooms have in them a compound called KS-2 which contains mannose bound to an amino acid. We will say more about shiitake (and kelp) later. Using fenugreek, kelp and shiitake should not be very expensive. Aloe vera plants may be expensive to start with, but a friend may have a "jungle" of the plants and be able to give some.

2. Glucose. Regarding the powder, glucose is found in kelp. But we don't really need to supplement glucose as its so abundant in our diets anyway. For the "jam" recipe the prime source is 100% pure grape juice, preferably dark organic (but I don’t worry if its not feasible). The grape juice will help, along with the next item, to make the aloe vera taste yummy instead of yuck. This juice is relatively cheap and if I have a juicer I can make my own.

3. Galactose. Galactose is present in the fenugreek of the powder and also in a lot of foods that we normally eat. For the "jam" recipe the prime source is 100% pure apple juice, preferably organic. This juice will help, along with the previous item, to make the aloe vera taste yummy. Both apple and grape juice have health properties of their own. Again this juice is relatively cheap and those with juicers can make their own. Some analyses don’t report galactose as being in Apple juice. This is because the galactose is in the pectin fibre which is present in varying amounts in juice.

4. Xylose. Xylose is present in the kelp used in the powder. Ground psyllium seeds are high in a xylose polysaccharide. They are cheap and easily obtained from a chemist or health food store. Psyllium is used in the "jam".

5 and 6. N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyl-galactosamine.

Vegetable sources: For those not wishing to consume medicinal animal products orally it is nice to know that Shiitake Mushroom contains N-acetylglucosamine (as a constituent of chitin). I can purchase fresh and/or dried Shiitake Mushrooms from many supermarkets and food stores. I buy dried whole shiitake mushrooms and powder them by using my liquidiser. Or I can buy a tablet with shiitake in. Shiitake Mushrooms do not contain N-acetyl-galactosamine. I thought that mistletoe contained N-acetyl-galactosamine but it appears that it does not. Instead it seems to contain a lectin that is specific for the N-acetyl-galactosamine receptor site. Also there are some toxicity issues with mistletoe. N-acetyl-galactosamine is contained in dextran sulphate, which is present in a red algae called Dumontiaceae (Cryttosiphonia woodii). But it appears that this product is hard to get except in Japan.

Animal Sources: Bovine cartilage and shark cartilage both have an abundance of these two essential sugars. These are both relatively cheap and available from a chemist or health food stores in capsules or loose powder. I prefer the bovine cartilage because it is predominantly the chondroitin 4-Sulfate form of chondroitin which is apparently slightly better (shark is predominantly chondroitin 6-Sulfate). I am not especially concerned about prions and mad cow disease from a bovine source because I can check where the cows come from and cartilage is not one of the tissues especially at risk for prion contamination. Actually, from what I’ve read, chondroitin is a substance that can be used to help treat prion disease as it interferes with the prions doing their dirty work in the nervous tissue. I am more concerned about the possibility of heavy metal contamination in shark cartilage, though I have not read any major problems regarding this. Those not wishing to consume animal products orally could use an arthritis cream containing chondroitin sulphate. The best cream I know of is Arthro-Aid Direct , which could be rubbed on the tummy at the time the glyconutrient powder is consumed.

7. Fucose. Kelp seaweed is rich in fucoidan, a polysaccharide containing plenty of fucose. Fucoidin is a complicated molecule that also contains xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. If anyone has an overactive thyroid they should not take this or other sea weeds without medical advice and monitoring. An alternative is beer yeast, which, according to my research, also contains plenty of fucose. Kelp has many health benefits and can be bought cheaply as a powder. It does not taste good to me!

8. N-acetylneuraminic acid (otherwise known as sialic acid) is found in whey protein isolate. Whey protein isolate also contains lots of other goodies. If allergic

to diary (though I am told some that are allergic to diary can take the isolate) an alternative is egg, which may be best raw. I need to make sure it is an organic egg from a healthy chicken. I need to make sure I buy whey protein ISOLATE, not just whey protein or whey powder. A 500g pot of whey protein isolate is a little costly but will last a long time and so is not a big expense long term. Note: I received some information early 2004 that suggested whey protein concentrate may have a higher amount of N-acetylneuraminic acid in it they the isolate.

How I can prepare and consume the ingredients:

TWO items will be discussed:

1. A glyconutrient powder which provides all 8 essential sugars at a minimal cost. The powder is more convenient to take and use than the "jam" and I am not currently using the "jam" -- just concentrating on the powder.

2. The glyconutrient jam which, if made correctly, tastes yummy and which is designed to give large amounts of the key monosaccharide mannose.

1. Glyconutrient Powder

Here are the powders, the glyconutrients they contain and the ratio for consumption (the ratio is by volume, not weight and is offered as a guide only. When I make it up I don't measure out everying exactly):

 1 part ground fenugreek: mannose, galactose (buy it already ground).

 1/4 part shiitake mushroom powder: N-acetylglucosamine, mannose.

 1 part kelp powder: fucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose.

 1 part whey protein isolate: N-acetylneuraminic acid. Alternative is beer or brewing yeast.

 1 part bovine or shark cartilage chondroitin sulphate powder (loose or in capsules): N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine). An alternative is Dumontiaceae ( for the N-acetylgalactosamine.

 1/2 part of ground psyllium (I use the husks alone because otherwise I have to grind husks myself. But purists may want to do the grinding) to boost the xylose content as there is not that much xylose in kelp.

I am currently mixing all powders together. Sometimes I add a little red cayenne pepper powder and a little turmeric powder too. I believe cayenne enhances my digestion and is an extra tonic (1/10-1/20th part). Turmeric has antioxidant properties.

I am also adding 1 part of lecithin granules as I have been told that this very greatly enhances absorption of glyconutrients.

To make the powder taste nice I use a flavoured vitamin C powder from GNLD. I am told that "Vita Fit" Vitamin C powder is good for this purpose to. I think that about 2 parts by volume would do. I usually take the mixture mixed with a juice. My children prefer soy milk.

Alternatively, I could take it with yogurt etc. or put the powder into "OO" size vegetable capsules to consume. Ideally, I would take five size "OO" capsules twice a day before meals. An alternative, if I wished to avoid mixing powders, would be to take one "OO" capsule of each powder twice a day before meals.

Maybe I could also take my powder mixed with an equal amount of honey. Honey occasionally contains spores of Clostridium botulinum - the Detrimental Bacteria that can cause the type of food poisoning called Botulism. For this reason, honey should not be fed to children under 12 months old.


Whey protein isolate can be taken "sublingually" in small amounts too. I am told that this is an even better way of taking it. But it can take awhile to "dissolve".

Kelp and Wakame seaweeds (Asian style), shiitake, fenugreek and whey isolate are all foods that can simply be eaten as part of a meal. There should be a good way of having all these items at a meal say twice a week using for example, wakame, fenugreek, shiitake, rice and vegetables with whey isolate mixed with dates and soy yoghurt for dessert. We need some good chief to come up with a tasty recipe for us to use! Have this meal with a chondroitin sulphate capsule and you've got all 8 sugars!

2. Glyconutrient Jam

Slowly simmer (don’t boil) 1 litre grape juice and 1.5 litres of apple juice so that half the water evaporates. Before turning off the heat stir in about 1/4 cup of ground psyllium. IMPORTANT: MAKE SURE NOT TO PUT IN TOO MUCH PSYLLIUM AS IT WILL TURN INTO A SOLID JELLY THAT IS NO GOOD FOR MIXING THINGS WITH. I err on the side of too little psyllium then add more if needed. Keep stirring for a couple of minutes or so then turn off the heat and let it sit. It will turn into a kind of jelly that tastes like jam. The heat should help to break down the psyllium polysaccharide into the xylose molecules. Store in a jar in the fridge.

When I wish to take my glyconutrient jam I put 1/4-1/3 of a cup of the grape, apple and psyllium jelly into a container. I grab about 4-5cm of an average aloe vera leaf from my garden and using a pair of scissors or knife chop it into the jam. Note: aloe contains a laxative so diarrhea is a sign that I am taking too much. If you get diarrhea (from the yellow aloin just under the skin) then try scraping out and eating

just the gel. I stir the aloe bits in and then eat it with a spoon. The aloe and jam should taste nice, but if not happy I can try cutting the aloe vera into smaller pieces or liquidising it into the jam. This further improves taste but ends up taking more time, especially to clean up! The aloe vera needs consuming soon after picking and chopping as I am told aloe vera’s mannose is quickly damaged or degraded after a leaf is picked.

The glyco-jam is easiest taken as a kind of entrée 10-30 minutes before meals or on its own as a supper in the evening. I would aim, for maintenance, to take this mixture three times a week or daily. For nutritional support when ill I could be take it more frequently.

Sources of Glyconutrients

The following is given due the paucity of information that seems to be currently available. It comes mainly from the Hyperhealth CD ROM, In-Tele-Health © 2003 and is for personal and educational purposes only. I highly recommend the purchase of the Hyperhealth CD ROM that is available as follows:

Australia:Hyperhealth, 20 Napier Street, Fitzroy, VIC 3065


Phone: (03) 9417-2567

Fax: (03) 9417-2567

USA: Hyperhealth, P.O. Box 37, Hansville, WA 98340


Phone: (360) 638-2898

Fax: (360) 638-2898

Dietary Sources of Mannose


Blackcurrants Currants - Red



Aloe Vera




Beans - Green






Dietary Sources of Xylose








Aloe Vera




Psyllium Seeds






Beans - Green




Dietary Sources of Glucose

(mg of Glucose per 100 grams)

Bee Foods: Honey 33,900


Grapes 7,300

Banana 7,000


Cherries 6,600

Strawberries 2,000



Aloe Vera






Dietary Sources of Galactose

(mg of Substance per 100 grams)


Apples 800

Apricot 600

Banana 200

Blackberries 1,000

Cherries 400

Cranberries 1,200

Currants 800

Dates 800

Grapes 300

Kiwi Fruit 700

Mango 1,700

Orange 1,600

Nectarine 1,100

Peach 1,300

Pear 600

Pineapple 700

Plums 2,600

Prunes 1,600

Raspberries 900

Rhubarb 1,500

Strawberries 500

Passionfruit 300





Chestnuts 2,700


Broccoli 2,700

Brussels Sprouts 4,100


Cabbage 4,400

Carrot 3,400

Cauliflower 3,200

Celery 2,700

Cucumber 1,600

Potato 1,800

Eggplant 3,500

Tomatoes 1,600

Leeks 6,600

Asparagus 2,800

Lettuce 2,000

Beans – Green 4,100

Mushrooms 1,100

Beetroot 1,100

Onions 4,500

Parsnip 2,200

Peas – Green 800

Pumpkin 2,400

Spinach 1,400

Dietary Sources of Fucose:

Fucoidan containing plants including several species of seaweed such as Kelp and Wakame.

Beer yeast.

Dietary Sources of N-acetylneuraminic acid or sialic acid:

Whey protein isolate.

Hens egg.

Dietary Sources of N-acetylglucosamine:

Bovine cartilage

Shark cartilage

Shiitake Mushroom (as a constituent of chitin).

Dietary Sources of N-acetyl-galactosamine:

Bovine cartilage

Shark cartilage

A red algae called Dumontiaceae (as a constituent of dextran sulphate).